When consulting patients at my functional medicine practice, I am finding many people are deficient or insufficient in magnesium. Some are taking magnesium, though they are not sure why, and some are also just taking a poor form of magnesium.
Magnesium is important for over 300 different chemical reactions in the body including blood sugar control, blood pressure regulation, muscles and nerve function, and protein synthesis. It is there to help stabilize ATP, which is the only molecule in our body that does work. Every piece of food we eat is eventually turned into energy called, ATP, and magnesium helps us use that energy. It plays an important role in bones and cell membranes to help transports ions across the membrane.
Studies show people of all ages are ingesting less magnesium than the recommended intake. On average, adults should be consuming close to 400mg a day of magnesium from food, and that is just to prevent disease. We absorb about 30% to 40% of magnesium from food. This is of course is if you are not taking medications, have a perfect gut without any malabsorption issues such as Celiac Disease or Crohns Disease, and if our minerals in our soil were optimal, which unfortunately our soils are becoming depleted of minerals. So basically, if you are not supplementing with magnesium, you probably are not getting enough.
Symptoms of magnesium deficiency/insufficiency include:
– Muscle aches and pains
– Muscle twitches (face especially) and cramps
– Poor sleep and stress
– Heart arrhythmias
– Nausea and acid reflux
Diseases associated with a magnesium deficiency:
– High blood pressure
– Type 2 Diabetes
– Heart arrhythmias
– Many more…
How to measure a magnesium deficiency?
There are a few ways to measure if someone is deficient although accurate results are hard to come by as most of the magnesium is stored in our bones and in our tissues. So by getting a serum magnesium test or even a red blood cell magnesium test, doesn’t necessarily rule out that you have sufficient levels. But if the levels are low, it’s a good indicator your magnesium is low. Its better to just go off of symptoms and someone’s health history.
Quality food sources of magnesium:
– Nuts and Seeds
– Leafy greens like swiss chard, beet greens, spinach
Here is a simple chart of some high quality foods and the amount of magnesium it contains.
|Spinach||156mg/cup||Flax seed||27 mg/ tbsp|
|Swiss Chard||150mg/cup||Quinoa, cooked||118mg/ cup|
|Beet Greens||97mg/cup||Black beans||120mg/ cup|
|Pumpkin Seeds||190mg/ ¼ cup||Almonds||61mg/ cup|
|Sesame Seeds||126mg/ ¼ cup||Summer Squash||41mg/ cup|
|Brazil Nuts||125mg/ ¼ cup||Kidney beans||74mg/ cup|
|Cashews||117mg/ ¼ cup||Sunflower Seeds||113mg/ ¼ cup|
|Avocado||58mg/ fruit||Navy beans||96mg/ cup|
|Cocoa Powder||27mg/ tbsp||Scallops||42mg/ 4oz|
If needed, which supplement should you choose?
Supplementing with 300-800mg may be necessary, just be careful of diarrhea as magnesium supplementation can cause that to occur. It is important to realize not all supplements are created equal, and its important to get your supplements professional grade companies that source high quality ingredients with less additives and good manufacturing standards.
1. Magnesium Glycinate
This is the most common supplement I recommend. It is easily absorbed into the body, making it easier on the bowels. I will use this to help with muscle spasms, muscle twitches and cramps, as well as poor sleep, cardiovascular support, and stress relief.
2. Magnesium Malate
This another common supplement that is easily absorbed in the body and easy on the bowels. This form is useful when wanting to combine magnesium and energy or muscle pains as malate is also found in the Krebs cycle which is used to produce ATP.
3. Magnesium Citrate
This form is a common form found at many healthfood stores. This is helpful for those who are constipated as its absorption is not as good as the malate and glycinate forms.
4. Magnesium Threonate
This is another form with great bioavailability. This form can be used to support the nervous system, sleep, stress relief, and brain health.
5. Magnesium Oxide
This is actually a very common magnesium that is in many supplements. Unfortunately, its levels of absorption and utility are quite poor, so not one I recommend.
6. Magnesium Sulfate
Better known as Epsom salt, some people will use this for bowel health as well, but I usually recommend this as a soaking aid for injuries as it helps draw out of the inflammation associated with the injury.
Medications that may reduce/deplete magnesium in your body:
-Water pills, diuretics (Lasix, furosemide, thiazides) used mainly for blood pressure
-Proton Pump inhibitors (Prilosec, Protonix)- used as antacids
Magnesium may interfere with some medications as well so speak with your provider about your medications and magnesium.
What has been your success with different magnesium supplementation and consumption? Let me hear from you below.